Keyword Research is the term used for identifying what search terms people are using in Google (or Bing) to find specific websites, products, services, or information.
Once relevant keywords have been identified they can be used as the basis for building specific marketing campaigns; either in content creation for SEO purposes (organic web marketing), or online paid advertising.
There are number of online solutions that cost money that offer keyword research tools, such as MOZ, and SEM Rush. However, they come at a premium as part of a wider SEO Toolkit.
Google offer a free Keyword Research tool as part of their Google AdWords service. Keyword Research can either be on an exact word, phrase, or broader term.
The results are often organised by the number of times that term has appeared in a search per month, how difficult it is to obtain a high ranking in search engines for it, and how popular it is as a paid advert.
Once you have started to develop and publish content based on your keyword research it is useful to use a Search Engine Ranking Position (SERP) tool to track your movement in search rankings.
There a number of free and paid-for tools that offer this service. They range from offering historical data to track progression and improvements to others just offering a current snapshot.
Google Search Console is one such tool that will tell you your average ranking position for search terms that you have appeared in results for. SERP analysis should be conducted on a regular basis alongside Keyword Research and any SEO / SEM work. SERP analysis will show you the effect that your effort having on your identified keywords and search terms in your ranking position.